Presentation on theme: "Prior to war in the late 1800s and early 1900s, European nations began a massive military buildup, partly to protect their overseas colonies from rivals."— Presentation transcript:
1 Before the war In the late 1800s and early 1900s, European nations began a massive military buildup, in part to protect their overseas colonies from rival powers. At the same time, these nations formed an intricate network of alliances to protect themselves from opposing forces. In 1914 the uneasy peace was about to end.
2 allied powers United Kingdom Russia France Serbia Central Powers Deutschland Austria-Hungary
3 Journey of the Archduke The future ruler of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was planning to visit the Bosnian city of Sarajevo, which was occupied by Austria only 6 years earlier, this occupation aroused feelings of hatred towards Austria from the Bosnian side. And Bosnia, too, was home to many Serbs and ethnic Slavs who were equally outraged by Austria's actions. One of the Serbian leaders' dreams was the unification of ethnic Slavs in Bosnia, but Austria stood in the way
4 A Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand plotted to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The visiting day was on the same day as St. Vitus Day: a holiday symbolizing Serbian unity. The B.H. Gruppe positioned themselves all over the city to look out for him to increase the chances of this operation. 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip had a chance to kill Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. a chain of events began that within a few weeks all of Europe would be drawn into the greatest war the world has ever seen
5 Europe on the brink of war
In 1914, rising tensions in Europe brought the continent to the brink of war. These tensions were the result of four factors: 1_militarism 2_alliances 3_imperialism 4_nationalism
6 militarism By the late 1800s and early 1900s, European countries had undergone a massive military buildup. This militarism was mainly caused by a desire to protect overseas colonies from other nations. Armed forces and navies had greatly increased in size across Europe, especially in Germany. The growing might of European forces made all greats anxious and ready to act at the first sign of trouble. In this nervous environment, even a minor disagreement could quickly escalate into an armed conflict.
7 alliances To protect themselves from opposing forces, the nations of Europe formed a number of alliances or partnerships. For example: At the end of the 19th century, the so-called Triple Alliance united Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. France and Russia feared the growing power of Germany and formed their own alliance. Britain soon joined France and Russia in a less formal promise to cooperate in an Entente. France, Russia and Great Britain therefore became known as the Triple Entente. The leaders hoped these alliances would help keep the peace. They believed that no nation would attack another
8 imperialism The quest to build empires in the late 1800s and early 1900s had created much rivalry and animosity among the nations of Europe. Germany, France, Russia and Great Britain each saw themselves as great imperial nations. They believed they could not afford to see a rival empire rise to power
9 nationalism An important part of the rising tensions in Europe was a rise in nationalism that began in the late 19th century. Nationalism is a strong commitment to one's national group or culture. In Europe, nationalism led to the creation of new countries, including Germany and Italy, and to power struggles. The most visible of these power struggles took place in the Balkan Peninsula, a region in south-eastern Europe that was home to many ethnic groups. In the early 1900s, some of these ethnic groups attempted to break free from the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled the Balkans for hundreds of years but was now on the verge of collapse
10 Some of the strongest nationalist tensions in the Balkans have been in Serbia. At that time Serbia was an independent state. However, many ethnic Serbs lived outside of Serbia in other areas of the Balkans. Serbian leaders wanted to expand the nation's borders and unite all of its people into one "Greater Serbia," but Austria-Hungary, the powerful empire north of Serbia, opposed any Serbian expansion, fearing that such growth would harm ethnic groups internally could encourage rebel. Tensions between Austria-Hungary and the Serbs continued to increase in the early 20th century
11 war breaks out Amid the Serbs' tensions and resentments towards Austria-Hungary, the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, FRANZ FERDINAND, decided to visit the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. On June 28, 1914, as Franz was driving a car through the streets of Sarajevo, a young Serbian man, Gavrilo Princip, opened fire with his pistol, killing the Archduke and his wife Sophie.
12 The impact Princip was arrested after the assassination. When he was identified as a Serb, Austria-Hungary decided to use the murder as an excuse to punish Serbia. Austria-Hungary made a series of humiliating demands on Serbia and then declared war in July. Russia, a country with many people of Slavic descent, had previously promised to support the Serbs should Austria-Hungary join. As Russia prepared to make good on its promise to the Serbs, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany viewed Russian action as a threat.
13 Germany declared war on Russia and then on Russia's ally France
Germany declared war on Russia and then on Russia's ally France. Thus, Europe's alliances and rivalries turned the action of a single assassin into a major conflict. The Battle Begins Located in Central Europe, Germany faced a war on two fronts - against Russia to the east and France to the west. Years earlier, German military planners had devised the Schlieffen Plan, which envisioned German troops quickly defeating France in the west and then fighting Russia. German leaders believed this strategy would be effective as Russia's enormous size meant it would take the Russian military some time to approach the German border
14 Belgium, sandwiched between Germany and France, was a neutral country. Germany planned to sweep through that country and then move on to France. Germany's attack on a neutral country led to Britain declaring war on Germany. The main players of the First World War were now in place. Central Powers: Germany & Austria-Hungary Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia
fifteen Battles 1914 Germany's plan for a quick victory in France soon foundered. By the end of 1914, the Great War had turned into a bloody stalemate. Early Battles: Beginning in August 1914, German troops fought French and British forces in a series of clashes known as the Battle of the Frontiers. Both sides suffered heavy casualties, but the result was a German victory. While France was fighting Germany in the Battle of the Frontiers, Russia was attacking German territory from the east. The results for the Russians were disastrous.
16 In the Battle of Tannenberg, German troops repelled the Russian invasion. The Russian attack had not defeated the Germans, but managed to distract German forces from their advance on France. This diversion allowed Allied forces to rally and engage the German invaders.
17 Trench warfare begins In the Battle of the Marne in early September 1914, the Allied troops pushed back the Germans. After the retreat, the Germans dug a series of trenches (ditches) along the Aisne River (AYN) and awaited the Allied attack. The Germans were able to repel the Allies. But the Allied forces soon dug their own trenches. As a result, German and Allied positions would change little over the coming months, despite a series of battles, the deadlocked region of northern France became known as the Western Front.
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